Technical Resources

Sierra Club Atlantic Chapter. SEWAGE SLUDGE ‘FERTILIZER’ CONTAMINATES FARMS WITH TOXIC PFAS June 2023 ‘Forever Chemicals’ Endanger Human Health, the Environment and the Future of Our Food.

Richman, T., Arnold, E. & Williams, A.J. . Curation of a list of chemicals in biosolids from EPA National Sewage Sludge Surveys & Biennial Review Reports.. Sci Data 9, 180 (2022).

Cáñez TT, Guo B, McIntosh JC, Brusseau M. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater at a reclaimed water recharge facility.. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Jun 3;791:147906. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147906. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34126475.

Mason, S. A.; Garneau, D.; Sutton, R.; Chu, Y.; Ehmann, K.; Barnes, J.; Fink, P.; Papazissimos, D.; Rogers, D. L. . Microplastic Pollution Is Widely Detected in US Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent. . Environ. Pollut. 2016, 218, 1045– 1054, DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.056

Kelly JJ, London MG, McCormick AR, Rojas M, Scott JW, Hoellein TJ.. Kelly JJ, London MG, McCormick AR, Rojas M, Scott JW, Hoellein TJ. Wastewater treatment alters microbial colonization of microplastics. . PLoS One. 2021 Jan 6;16(1):e0244443. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244443. PMID: 33406095; PMCID: PMC7787475.

Filis P, et. al. Long-term exposure to chemicals in sewage sludge fertilizer alters liver lipidcontent in females and cancer marker expression in males. Environment International 124 (2019) 98-108

Ghisi, R.; Vamerali, T.; Manzetti, S. . Accumulation of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in agricultural plants: A review. . Environ. Res. 2019, 169, 326-341.

C Gallen, et al.. A mass estimate of perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) release from Australian wastewater treatment plants. Chemosphere, in press

Rothamsted Research. The potential environmental harm of nanoparticles contained in sewage sludge.

Gushgari, A. J., Halden, R. U., Venkatesan, A. K. . Occurrence of N-nitrosamines in US freshwater sediments near wastewater treatment plants. . Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2017 Feb 5. (323): 109-115.

Geer, L. A., Pycke, B. F. G., Waxenbaum. Association of birth outcomes with fetal exposure to parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in an immigrant population in Brooklyn, New York. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2017 Feb 5. (323): 177-183.

Sadaria, A. M., R. Sutton, K. Moran, J. Teerlink, J. Brown, and R. U. Halden. Passage of Fiproles and Imidacloprid from Urban Pest Control Uses Through Wastewater Treatments Plants in Northern California. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016 Dec 16. 36(6): 1473-1482

Unsafe levels of toxic chemicals found in drinking water for six million Americans. Science Daily reports on Harvard School of Pubic Health Study.

Hu, X. C.; Andrews, D. Q.; Lindstrom, A. B.; Bruton, T. A.; Schaider, L. A.; Grandjean, P.; Lohmann, R.; Carignan, C. C.; Blum, A.; Balan, S. A.; Higgins, C. P.; Sunderland, E. M. . Detection of Polyand Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) in U.S. Drinking Water Linked to Industrial Sites, Military Fire Training Areas, and Wastewater Treatment Plants. . Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 2016, 3 (10), 344-350.

Carrie Arnold. Pipe Dreams: Tapping into the Health Information in Our Sewers. Environmental Health Perspectives

Gushgari, A. J., R. U. Halden* and A. K. Venkatesan. Occurrence of N-Nitrosamines in U.S. Freshwater Sendiments near Wastewater Treatment Plants. J. Haz. Mat. 2016 Mar 31. pii: S0304-3894(16)30326-0

Barnes, J.; Fink, P.; Papazissimos, D.; Rogers, D. L. . Microplastic Pollution Is Widely Detected in US Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent.. Mason, S. A.; Garneau, D.; Sutton, R.; Chu, Y.; Ehmann, K.; Microplastic Pollution Is Widely Detected in US Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent. Environ. Pollut. 2016, 218, 1045-1054.

Yu, X. H., J. C. Xue, H. Yao, Q. Wu, A. K. Venkatesan, R. U. Halden and K. Kannan. Occurrence and estrogenic potency of eight bisphenol analogs in sewage sludge from the U.S. EPA targeted national sewage sludge survey. J. Hazard. Mater. 299:733-739

Jonathan D. Judy, Nanomaterials in Biosolids Inhibit Nodulation, Shift Microbial Community Composition, and Result in Increased Metal Uptake Relative to Bulk/Dissolved Metals. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2015, 49 (14), pp 8751–8758

Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab, et. al. . Dissipation of triclosan, triclocarban, carbamazepine and naproxen in agricultural soil following surface or sub-surface application of dewatered municipal biosolids. Sci Total Environ., Vol 512–513, 15 April 2015, Pages 480–488

Bikram Subedi and Kurunthachalam Kannan. Fate of Artificial Sweeteners in Wastewater Treatment Plants in New York State, U.S.A.. Environ. Sci. Technol. XXXX, XXX, XXX, accepted November 3, 2014

US EPA, Office of the Inspector General. More Action Is Needed to Protect Water Resources From Unmonitored Hazardous Chemicals.

Arjun K. Venkatesana and Rolf U. Halden. National inventory of perfluoroalkyl substances in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA National Sewage Sludge Survey. J Hazard Mater. 2013 May 15; 0: 413–418.

Puneet Kollipara. Treated Sewage Solids Contain Troubling Nitrosamines. Chemical & Engineering News

Puneet Kollipara. Treated Sewage Solids Contain Troubling Nitrosamines. Chemical and Engineering News

Yager, T.J.B., Furlong, E.T., Kolpin, D.W., Kinney, C.A., Zaugg, S.D., and Burkhardt, M.R.. Dissipation of contaminants of emerging concern in biosolids applied to nonirrigated farmland in eastern Colorado. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, v. 50, no. 2, p. 343-357.

Venkatesan, Arjun K., and Rolf U. Halden. Wastewater Treatment Plants as Chemical Observatories to Forecast Ecological and Human Health Risks of Manmade Chemicals. Scientific Reports 4 (2014): 3731

Langdon et al.. Comparison of degradation between indigenous and spiked bisphenol A and triclosan in a biosolids amended soil. Sci. Total Environ., 447 (2013), pp. 56–63

Mary-Russell Roberson. Flame Retardants Make Dust Bunnies Dangerous. Duke University Research

Lowman A, McDonald MA, Wing S, Muhammad N. . Land application of treated sewage sludge: community health and environmental justice. . Environ Health Perspectives, Vol. 121, No. 5, May 2013, pp 537-542.

Nancy Lamontagne. Farmland application of sewage sludge raises environmental justice concerns. The Environmental Factor, May 2013, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Benjamin P. Colman, Christina L. Arnaout, Sarah Anciaux, Claudia K. Gunsch, Michael F. Hochella Jr, Bojeong Kim, Gregory V. Lowry, Bonnie M. McGill, Brian C. Reinsch, Curtis J. Richardson, Jason M. Unrine, Justin P. Wright, Liyan Yin, Emily S. Low Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles in Biosolids Cause Adverse Ecosystem Responses under Realistic Field Scenario . PLOS

Benjamin P. Colman, Christina L. Arnaout, Sarah Anciaux, Claudia K. Gunsch, Michael F. Hochella Jr,, Bojeong Kim, Gregory V. Lowry, Bonnie M. McGill, Brian C. Reinsch, Curtis J. Richardson, Jason M. Unrine, Justin P. Wright, Liyan Yin, Emily S. Bernha. Low Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles in Biosolids Cause Adverse Ecosystem Responses under Realistic Field Scenario . PLOS One, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057189

Benjamin P. Colman, et. al. . Low Concentrations of Silver Nanoparticles in Biosolids Cause Adverse Ecosystem Responses under Realistic Field Scenario. PLOS ONE

Yun-Ya Yang, James L. Gray, Edward T. Furlong, Jessica G. Davis, Rhiannon C. ReVello, and Thomas Borch. Steroid Hormone Runoff from Agricultural Test Plots Applied with Municipal Biosolids. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46 (5), pp 2746–2754

Bojeong Kim, Mitsuhiro Murayama, Benjamin P. Colman, and Michael F. Hochella, Jr.. Characterization and environmental implications of nano- and larger TiO2 particles in sewage sludge, and soils amended with sewage sludge. Journal of Environmental Monitoring

Elizabeth F. Davis, Susan L. Klosterhaus, Heather M. Stapleton. Measurement of flame retardants and triclosan in municipal sewage sludge and biosolids. Environment International 40 (2012) 1–7

Emily Gertz. Safety Rules for Sewage Sludge May Be Outdated. Chemical & Engineering News, June 15, 2011, DOI:10.1021/CEN060711084107

Emily Viau, Kyle Bibby, Tania Paez-Rubio, and Jordan Peccia. Toward a Consensus View on the Infectious Risks Associated with Land Application of Sewage Sludge. Environ. Sci. Technol., June 2011, DOI: 10.1021/es200566f

Rebecca Renner. Sludge Sloughs Off Perfluorinated Chemicals . Chemical & Engineering News, April 8, 2011, DOI:10.1021/CEN03221114445

Jennifer G. Sepulvado, Andrea C. Blaine, Lakhwinder S. Hundal, and Christopher P. Higgins . Occurrence and Fate of Perfluorochemicals in Soil Following the Land Application of Municipal Biosolids. Environ. Sci. Technol.,Publication Date (Web): March 29, 2011 (Article) DOI: 10.1021/es103903d

Jennifer G. Sepulvado, et. al.. Occurrence and Fate of Perfluorochemicals in Soil Following the Land Application of Municipal Biosolids. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45 (19), pp 8106–8112

Michael Torrice. Spreading Resistance During Wastewater Treatment. Chemical Engineering News, March 28, 2011, DOI:10.1021/CEN031011143933

Amy Lowman, Steve Wing, Carolyn Crump, Pia D.M. MacDonald, Chris Heaney and Michael D. Aitken. . Public officials' perspectives on tracking and investigating symptoms reported near sewage sludge land application sites.. Journal of Environmental Health, 73.6 (Jan-Feb 2011): p14(7).

Wendell P. Ela, et al.. Toward Identifying the Next Generation of Superfund and Hazardous Waste SiteContaminants. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 119, No. 1, pp. 6-10

Jonathan D. Judy, Jason M. Unrine, and Paul M. Bertsch. Evidence for Biomagnification of Gold Nanoparticles within a Terrestrial Food Chain. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2011, 45 (2), pp 776–781

Kristin McClellan, Rolf U. Halden. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in archived U.S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA national sewage sludge survey. Water Research 4 4 ( 2 0 1 0 ) 6 5 8 – 6 6 8

Bradley O. Clarke, Stephen R. Smith. Review of ‘emerging’ organic contaminants in biosolids and assessment of international research priorities for the agricultural use of biosolids. Environment International 37 (2011) 226–247

Wendell P. Ela, David L. Sedlak, Morton A. Barlaz, Heather F. Henry, Derek C.G. Muir, Deborah L. Swackhamer, Eric J. Weber, Robert G. Arnold, P. Lee Ferguson, Jennifer A. Field, Edward T. Furlong, John P. Giesy, Rolf U. Halden, Tala Henry, Ronald A. Hites. Toward Identifying the Next Generation of Superfund and Hazardous Waste Site Contaminants. Environmental Health Perspectives , Vol. 119, No. 1 (January 2011), pp. 6-10

Richard Harth . Long-lasting chemicals threaten the environment and human health. Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News, December 21, 2010

Carol Potera. Nanomaterials. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Sewage Sludge. Environmental Health Perspectives , Vol. 118, No. 12 (December 2010), pp. A526-A527

Aleksandra Jelic, Meritxell Gros, Antoni Ginebreda, Raquel Cespedes- Sánchez, Francesc Ventura, Mira Petrovic, Damia Barcelo. Occurrence, partition and removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage water and sludge during wastewater treatment. Water Research (2010), doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.11.010

Yunjie Ding, Weihao Zhang, Cheng Gu, Irene Xagoraraki, Hui Li. Determination of Pharmaceuticals in Biosolids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A (2010), doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.10.112

Moshe Shenker, Daniella Harush, Julius Ben-Ari, Benny Chefetz. Uptake of carbamazepine by cucumber plants – A case study related to irrigation with reclaimed wastewater. Chemosphere (2010), doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.052

Alicia P. Gregory. UK-led International Team Studies Eco Threats from Nanoparticles . University of Kentucky, Odyssey (Fall 2010)

Jason M. Unrine, Simona E. Hunyadi, Olga V. Tsyusko, William Rao, W. Aaron Shoults-Wilson, and Paul M. Bertsch. Evidence for Bioavailability of Au Nanoparticles from Soil and Biodistribution within Earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44 (21), pp 8308–8313 DOI: 10.1021/es101885w

Bojeong Kim, Chee-Sung Park, Mitsuhiro Murayama, and Michael F. Hochella, Jr.. Discovery and Characterization of Silver Sulfide Nanoparticles in Final Sewage Sludge Products. Environ. Sci. Technol., web publication September 14, 2010, DOI: 10.1021/es101565j

N. Musee. Nanowastes and the environment: Potential new waste management paradigm. Environment International 37 (2011) 112–128

Tao Zhang et al. Comparison of two extraction methods for the analysis of per- and polyfluorinated chemicals in digested sewage sludge. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylic acids (FTUCAs) in sludge. Journal of Chromatography A, 2010, 1217, 5026-5034.

Evelyn Walters, Kristin McClellan, Rolf U. Halden. Occurrence and loss over three years of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products from biosolidsesoil mixtures in outdoor mesocosms. Water Research 4 4 ( 2 0 1 0 ) pp. 6 0 11 - 6 0 2 0

Chenxi Wu, Alison L. Spongberg, Jason D. Witter, Min Fang, and Kevin P. Czajkowski. Uptake of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products by Soybean Plants from Soils Applied with Biosolids and Irrigated with Contaminated Water. Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, July 21, 2010,

Jana Vrkoslavová et al.. Absorption and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by plants from contaminated sewage sludge. Chemosphere 81 (2010) 381–386. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.07.010

Mark J. La Guardia, Robert C. Hale, Ellen Harvey, and Da Chen. Flame-Retardants and Other Organohalogens Detected in Sewage Sludge by Electron Capture Negative Ion Mass Spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Technology, May 20, 2010. DOI: 10.1021/es9039264

Jeffrey M. Buth, Peter O. Steen, Charles Sueper, Dylan Blumentritt, Peter J. Vikesland, William A. Arnold, and Kristopher McNeill. Dioxin Photoproducts of Triclosan and Its Chlorinated Derivatives in Sediment Cores. Environ. Sci. Technology, May 17, 2010. DOI: 10.1021/es1001105

Lokesh Padhye, Pei Wang, Tanju Karanfil, and Ching-Hua Huang. Unexpected Role of Activated Carbon in Promoting Transformation of Secondary Amines to N-Nitrosamines. Environ. Sci. Technology. May 6, 2010, 44 (11), pp 4161–4168 DOI: 10.1021/es903916t

Michelle Bellingham et al. Exposure to a Complex Cocktail of Environmental Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Disturbs the Kisspeptin/GPR54 System in Ovine Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland. Study shows developing fetus is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals in sewage sludge, which cause significant neuroendocrine alterations. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 117, No. 10 (Oct., 2009), pp. 1556-1562

Leena Sahlström, Verena Rehbinder, Ann Albihn, Anna Aspan, and Björn Bengtsson . Vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish sewage sludge. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 2009, 51:24

Jongmun Cha, Alison M. Cupples. Detection of the antimicrobials triclocarban and triclosan in agricultural soils following land application of municipal biosolids. Water Research, Volume 43, Issue 9, May 2009, Pages 2522-2530

Alistair B. A. Boxall, Anthony Hardy, Sabine Beulke, Tatiana Boucard, Laura Burgin, Peter D. Falloon, Philip M. Haygarth, Thomas Hutchinson, R. Sari Kovats, Giovanni Leonardi, Leonard S. Levy, Gordon Nichols, Simon A. Parsons, Laura Potts, David Stone, Ed. Impacts of Climate Change on Indirect Human Exposure to Pathogens and Chemicals from Agriculture. Sewage sludge is identified as an agricultural contaminant in this publication of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 117, No. 4 (Apr., 2009), pp. 508-514

Amelie Kierkegard et. al.. A Mass Balance of Tri-Hexabrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Cows. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 43, No. 7, 2009

Talia E. A. Chalew and Rolf U. Halden. Environmental Exposure Of Aquatic And Terrestrial Biota To Triclosan And Triclocarban. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA), Vol. 45, No. 1

Erik Stokstad. The Dirt on Sewage Sludge. Science Magazine (AAAS), January 22, 2009

EPA. Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey Report. Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey, EPA-822-R-08-014, 7 (January 2009)

Rebecca Renner. EPA finds record PFOS, PFOA levels in Alabama grazing fields. Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/es803520c

Bradley Clarke et al. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in Australian Sewage Sludge. Chemosphere.2008.06.034

V.N. Kouloumbosa, A. Schaffer, P.F.-X. Corvini. Impact of sewage sludge conditioning and dewatering on the fate of nonylphenol in sludge-amended soils. Water Research, Vol. 4 2 ( 2 0 0 8 ), pp. 3 9 4 1 – 3 9 5 1

Wu Chenxi, Alison L. Spongberg, Jason D. Witter. Determination of the persistence of pharmaceuticals in biosolids using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Chemosphere, 2008, 06.026

Limbach et al. Removal of Oxide Nanoparticles in a Model Wastewater Treatment Plant: Influence of Agglomeration and Surfactants on Clearing Efficiency. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008; 0 (0): 0 DOI: 10.1021/es800091f

Science Daily summary of Limbach paper. Nanoparticles In Sewage Could Escape Into Bodies Of Water. Science Daily, July 28, 2008

Editorial. Stuck in the mud. Nature, p 258.

Jeff Tollefson. Raking through sludge exposes stink: Environmental Protection Agency scientists accused of fabricating data about health effects of fertilizer. Nature, p 262.

Hinckley et al. Persistence of Pathogenic Prion Protein during Simulated Wastewater Treatment Processes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 5254–5259

Alison L. Spongberg and Jason D. Witter. Pharmaceutical compounds in the wastewater process stream in Northwest Ohio. Science of the Total Environment, 3 9 7 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 1 4 8 – 1 5 7

Ethel Eljarrat, Göran Marsh, Ana Labandeira, Damià Barceló. Effect of sewage sludges contaminated with polybrominated diphenylethers on agricultural soils. Chemosphere, Volume 71, Issue 6, April 2008, Pages 1079-1086

Kinney et al. Bioaccumulation of Pharmaceuticals and Other Anthropogenic Waste Indicators in Earthworms from Agricultural Soil Amended With Biosolid or Swine Manure. Vol. 42, No. 6, 2008, Environmental Science & Technology

Troy Benn and Paul Westerhoff. Nanoparticle Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available Sock Fabrics. Environ. Sci. Technol., 42 (11), pp 4133–4139, 2008

Athanasios S. Stasinakis, , Georgia Gatidou, Daniel Mamais, Nikolaos S. Thomaidis, Themistokles D. Lekka . Occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupters in Greek sewage treatment plants. Water Research, Vol. 42 ( 2008 ) pp. 1796 – 1804

Sadik Khuder et al.. Health Survey of Residents Living Near Farm Fields Permitted to Receive Biosolids. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, Vol. 62, No. 1, 2007

S. Barnabe´, I. Beauchesne, D.G. Cooper, J.A. Nicell . Plasticizers and their degradation products in the process streams of a large urban physicochemical sewage treatment plant. Water Research, Vol. 42 ( 2008) pp. 153 – 162

Mark J. La Guardia, Robert Hale, and Ellen Harvey. Evidence of Debromination of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) in Biota from a Wastewater Receiving Stream. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 41, No. 19, 2007

Tania Paez-Rubio et al. Emission Rates and Characterization of Aerosols Produced During the Spreading of Dewatered Class B Biosolids. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 3537-3544

Kinney et al. Survey of Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Biosolids Destined for Land Application. Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, No. 23, 2006, pp 7207-7215.

U.S. EPA . An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States for the Years 1987, 1995, and 2000. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2006) National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC; EPA/600/P-03/002F.

Ellen Z. Harrison et al. . Organic Chemicals in Sewage Sludges. Science of The Total Environment · Volume 367, Issues 2-3, 31 August 2006, Pages 481-497

Aimee Cunningham. Tainted by Cleanser. Science News, Vol. 169, No. 18, May 6, 2006, pp. 275

Heidler et al. Partitioning, Persistence, and Accumulation in Digested Sludge of the Topical Antiseptic Triclocarban during Wastewater Treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2006, 40, 3634-3639.

Jonathan P. Bound and Nikolaos Voulvoulis. Household Disposal of Pharmaceuticals as a Pathway for Aquatic Contamination in the United Kingdom. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 113, No. 12, Dec., 2005, pp. 1705-1711

Catriona Paul, Stewart M. Rhind, Carol E. Kyle, Hayley Scott, Chris McKinnell, Richard M. Sharpe. Cellular and Hormonal Disruption of Fetal Testis Development in Sheep Reared on Pasture Treated with Sewage Sludge. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 113, No. 11 (Nov., 2005), pp. 1580-1587; Published by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

Anneli Marklund, et al. . Organophosphorus Flame Retardants and Plasticizers in Swedish Sewage Treatment Plants. Environmental Science & Technology, 2005, 39, 7423 - 7429.

Manfred Clara, Birgit Strenn, Ernis Saracevic, Norbert Kreuzinger. Adsorption of bisphenol-A, 17b-estradiole and 17a-ethinylestradiole to sewage sludge. Chemosphere 56 (2004) 843–851

Karen Rideout and Kay Teschke. Potential for Increased Human Foodborne Exposure to PCDD/F When Recycling Sewage Sludge on Agricultural Land. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 112, No. 9, 2004, pp. 959-969

Mark J. La Guardia, Robert C. Hale, Ellen Harvey, Elizabeth O. Bush,. Organic Contaminants of Emerging Concern in. Journal of Residuals Science & Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2, April 2004

M.B. McBride. Toxic metals in sewage sludge-amended soils: has promotion of. Advances in Environmental Research, Volume 8, Issue 1, October 2003, Pages 5-19

Jorgen Thorn et al. Measurement Strategies for the Determination of Airborne Bacterial Endotoxin in Sewage Treatment Plants. Ann. Occup. Hyg., Vol. 46, No. 6, pp 549-554, 2002

Eva M. Golet, et al. Environmental Exposure Assessment of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents from Sewage to Soil. Environmental Science & Technology, VOL. 37, NO. 15, 2003

Joel Tickner and Sara Wright. Primary Prevention Of Chemical Contamination. New Solutions, Vol. 12(4) 425-433, 2002

Christopher T. Nidel. Regulating the Fate of Pharmaceutical Drugs: A New Prescription for the Environment. Food & Drug Law Journal, Vol. 58, 2003, pp. 81-102

Kolpin et al., 2002 D.A. Kolpin, E.T. Furlong, M.T. Meyer, E.M. Thurman, S.D. Zaugg and L.B. Barber et al. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999–2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36 (2002), pp. 1202–1211

David L. Lewis, David K. Gattie, Marc E. Novak, Susan Sanchez, Charles Pumphrey. Interactions Of Pathogens And Irritant Chemicals In Land-Applied Sewage Sludges (Biosolids). BMC Public Health 2002, 2:11

Eva M. Golet, Adrian Strehler, Alfredo C. Alder, and Walter Giger. Determination of Fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents in Sewage Sludge and Sludge-Treated Soil Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction Followed by Solid-Phase Extraction. Anal. Chem. 2002, 74, 5455-5462

Ted Schettler. Sewage Sludge - Looking Upstream: The Precautionary Principle. New Solutions, Vol. 12(4) 355-358, 2002

U.S. Geological Survey.
Household Chemicals and Drugs Found in Biosolids from Wastewater Treatment Plants
The 25 Chemicals Found in All Nine of the Biosolids Studied
What's in Our Wastewaters and Where Does it Go?

Abby Rockefeller. Sewers, Sewage Treatment, Sludge: Damage Without End. New Solutions, Vol. 12(4) 341-346, 2002.

Kolpin, D.W., E. T. Furlong, M.T. Meyer, E.M. Thurman, S.D. Zaugg, L.B. Barber, and H.T. Buxton. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36:1202-1211.

Robert C. Hale and Mark J. LaGuardia. Have Risks Associated with the Presence of Synthetic Organic Contaminants in Land-Applied Sewage Sludges Been Adequately Addressed?. 12 New Solutions: J. Env. & Occupational Health Policy 371, 372 (2002).

R. Clapp and L. Orlando, eds. The Sludge Report: A special issue of New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy. Volume 12, Number 4, 2002.

Ellen Z. Harrison and Summer Rayne Oakes. Investigation Of Alleged Health Incidents Associated With Land Application Of Sewage Sludges. New Solutions, Vol. 12(4) 387-408, 2002

Hale, R.C., M.J. LaGuardia, E.P. Harvey, M.O. Gaylor, T.M. Mainor, and W.H. Duff. Persistent pollutants in land applied sludges. Nature 412:140-141.

J. Lisa Jorgenson. Aldrin and Dieldrin: A Review of Research on Their Production, Environmental Deposition and Fate, Bioaccumulation, Toxicology, and Epidemiology in the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 109, Supplement 1: Reviews in Environmental Health, 2001 (Mar., 2001), pp. 113-139

David L. Lewis et al. Interactions Of Pathogens And Irritant Chemicals In Land-Applied Sewage Sludges (Biosolids). New Solutions, Vol. 12(4) 409-423, 2002